1. Lake Oahe, Dakotas

    The Missouri River and its surrounding ecosystems are struggling in the tight fist of a 6-year drought. In North Dakota, 374-kilometer-long Lake Oahe, the nation’s fourth largest reservoir, is so low that it has left the state. The long, thin reservoir extends upriver from the Oahe Dam on the Missouri from Pierre, South Dakota, to Bismarck, North Dakota. North of the state line, more than 100 kilometers of the lake that were formerly about 8 kilometers wide have reverted to a narrow river. The shrinking of the lake has left behind weedy mudflats and boat ramps stranded 2 kilometers from the water’s edge.

    These images of Lake Oahe show the reservoir on April 4, 2005, (right) compared to the level on May 18, 2000 (left). The Missouri runs through the center of the images in a dark blue line. The image on the left was captured by NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite, while the image on the right was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite. In both images, vegetation appears in shades of red, while bare or sparsely vegetated ground are in shades of green (May 18 image) or tan (April 4 image). The already-thin reservoir has shrunk dramatically in the four years between the images. Both images cover an area of 28.7 by 65.6 kilometers, and they are centered along the North and South Dakota border.

    The drought’s list of effects is long and painful: shortage of drinking and irrigation water; reduction in hydroelectric capacity; decrease in tourism; reduction in shipping; threats to endangered wildlife. The cause is the continuing yearly shortage of snowpack in the Rocky Mountains in Montana, where the Missouri River has its headwaters.

    NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

     
  2. Great Flood of the Mississippi River, 1993

    During the first half of 1993, the U.S. Midwest experienced unusually heavy rains. Much of the United States in the upper reaches of the Mississippi River drainage basin received more than 1.5 times their average rainfall in the first six months of the year, and parts of North Dakota, Iowa, and Kansas experienced more than double. The rains often arrived in very intense storms. Floods overwhelmed the elaborate system of dykes and other water control structures in the Mississippi River basin, leading to the greatest flood ever recorded on the Upper Mississippi. In St. Louis, the Mississippi remained above flood stage for 144 days between April 1 and September 30, 1993.

    This image pair shows the area around St. Louis, Missouri, in August 1991 and 1993. The 1993 image was captured slightly after the peak water levels in this part of the Mississippi River. Flood waters had started to recede, but remained well above normal. This false-color image was created by combining infrared, near infrared, and green wavelengths of light observed by the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument onboard the Landsat 5 satellite (TM bands 5, 4, and 2 respectively). Water appears dark blue, healthy vegetation is green, bare fields and freshly exposed soil are pink, and concrete is grey. The scale of flooding in the river basins of the Illinois, Missouri, and Mississippi Rivers in 1993 is immense. The deep pink scars in the 1993 image show where flood waters have drawn back to reveal the scoured land.

    Other factors contributed to the severity of the flooding that year. The previous year had been cooler than average, which decreased evaporation from the soil and allowed the heavy rains to saturate the ground rapidly. In addition, widespread landcover change along rivers and streams has dramatically altered the natural flood control systems: wetlands that can absorb large amounts of water and release it slowly over time. The network of levees, canals, and dams in the Upper Mississippi Basin was unable to control the floods of 1993.

    Spurred by this massive disaster, geologist Robert Brackenridge of Dartmouth College brought the tools of satellite remote sensing to bear on the issue of flood management, prediction, and monitoring. You can read about his work in the feature article High Water: Building A Global Flood Atlas.

    NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat Project Science Office.

    Instrument(s): Landsat 5 - TM
     
  3. Eastern Mediterranean Coastline at Night

    This night photograph taken by astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) shows the location and size of cities at the east end of the Mediterranean Sea. The largest, brightest cluster is the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, a port set against the blackness of the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem, Israel’s capital city, and Amman, Jordan’s capital, are the next largest (with Amman’s lights having a whiter tone), followed by Beersheba.

    Bright but narrow lines that snake between the cities are highways. The mostly dark areas with small towns are agricultural and pastoral areas of Israel, Sinai, Gaza, the West Bank, and Jordan. A wide, almost black zone between Jerusalem and Amman trends north-south across the right half of the image; it is the long valley that includes the Jordan River and the Dead Sea.

    Click here to view an astronaut image of the same area in daylight. And read more here about a new NASA crowd-sourcing project to identify cities and towns in night images from the space station.

    Astronaut photograph ISS040-E-74022 was acquired on July 22, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using an 85 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 40 crew. It has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by M. Justin Wilkinson, Jacobs at NASA-JSC.

    Instrument(s): ISS - Digital Camera
     
  4. Where China and Kazakhstan Meet

    While people often say that borders aren’t visible from space, the line between Kazakhstan and China could not be more clear in this satellite image. Acquired by the Landsat 8 satellite on September 9, 2013, the image shows northwestern China around the city of Qoqek and far eastern Kazakhstan near Lake Balqash.

    The border between the two countries is defined by land-use policies. In China, land use is intense. Only 11.62 percent of China’s land is arable. Pressed by a need to produce food for more than 1.3 billion people, land that can be sustain agriculture is farmed intensely. Fields are dark green in contrast to the surrounding arid landscape, a sign that the agriculture is irrigated. As of 2006, about 65 percent of China’s fresh water goes to agriculture, irrigating 629,380 square kilometers (243,300 square miles) of farmland (an area slightly smaller than the state of Texas).

    The story is quite different in Kazakhstan. Here, large industrial-sized farms dominate, an artifact of Soviet-era agriculture. While agriculture is an important sector in the Kazakh economy, eastern Kazakhstan is a minor growing area. Only 0.03 percent of Kazakhstan’s land is devoted to permanent agriculture, with 20,660 square kilometers being irrigated. The land along the Chinese border is minimally used, though rectangular shapes show that farming does occur in the region. Much of the agriculture in this region is rain-fed, so the fields are tan much like the surrounding natural landscape.

    1. References

    2. BBC News (2010, January 30) Kazakhs protest against China farmland lease. Accessed July 9, 2014.
    3. Earth Observatory (2013, September 25) Fall harvest in Kazakhstan. Accessed July 9, 2014.
    4. Encyclopedia of Earth (2013, August 25) Land use profile of China. Accessed July 9, 2014.
    5. Fragile Oasis (2011, September 7) Borders from space. Accessed July 9, 2014.
    6. United States Central Intelligence Agency (2014, June 22) The world factbook: China. Accessed July 9, 2014.
    7. United States Central Intelligence Agency (2014, June 22) The world factbook: Kazakhstan. Accessed July 9, 2014.

    NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Holli Riebeek.

    Instrument(s): Landsat 8 - OLI
     
  5. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Located on the highly populated Hawaiian island of Oahu just west of Honolulu, Pearl Harbor is the historic center of events on ‘the day that will live in infamy’—December 7, 1941—when the Japanese fleet launched a surprise air attack on Pearl Harbor and other strategic military targets on Oahu.

    Pearl Harbor is home base for the U.S. Pacific Fleet, controlled by the U.S. Navy. The larger Pearl Harbor Naval Complex (PHNC) is a large contributor to the island’s economy through jobs, housing, and services. In this image, Ford Island, connected to surrounding Oahu by a narrow causeway, can be seen in the center of the harbor. Pearl Harbor Naval Station and Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard are located northwest and southeast of Ford Island, respectively. Waipio Peninsula, with its large soccer complex and fields, is located west of the island. The long white “ship” seen just off the southeast coast of Ford Island is the Arizona Memorial. Many submarines and battleships continue to use the busy harbor, which has been dredged deeper to accommodate them. Prominent in this image are several of the large Naval vessels, located in Middle Loch.

    Pearl Harbor is actually a submerged confluence of several river valleys, formed approximately 13,000 years ago during the last glacial period. During the present inter-glacial period, sea levels have risen and “drowned” this valley. Today, Pearl Harbor provides natural drainage for several streams leading down from the two northwest-trending mountain ranges, the Waianae Range on the west of the island and the Ko’olau Range on the east, eventually leading to Mamala Bay. The Pearl Harbor area has become heavily used and populated; it is an urban subtropical watershed.

    The ISS-6 Space Station crew obtained this high-resolution image of Pearl Harbor in March 2003, enabling detailed observations of the harbor and its multiple uses.

    Astronaut photograph ISS006-E-52006 was acquired March 13, 2003, with a Nikon D1 digital camera with an 800-mm lens and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

    Instrument(s): ISS - Digital Camera
     
  6. Tucson, Arizona

    Tucson lies between the forested Catalina Mountains and the Tucson Mountains (dark reddish brown at the left image margin).The typical western North American cityscape is a pattern of regular north-south aligned rectangles outlined by major streets set one mile apart. Tucson’s Randolph golf course is the large, rectangular dark zone in the image center. The striking contrast between the golf course and its surroundings is due to dense grass cover maintained by frequent watering. Population growth in Tucson is not as rapid as that of Phoenix to the north, however it is still significant. Within the city limits, the population in the year 2000 was about 487,000 and was estimated to be over 514,000 in 2003.

    The rectangular grid pattern disappears in the small streets of the original city center, situated along the Santa Cruz River (enters the view at lower left and exits in the top left corner). Moist air from Mexico and the Gulf of California frequently travels northwards along the Santa Cruz River corridor during the summer months. This moisture results in “monsoon” thunderstorms that help recharge the aquifers providing the majority of Tucson’s water.

    Newer and less densely built-up neighborhoods in the foothills of the Catalina Mountains are designed to incorporate natural landscape features, and retain major washes with natural vegetation. This portion of the cityscape seen from space is consequently quite different from the main city grid. The foothills afford views of the city to the south and the mountains to the north and are major areas of development. Large white dots within the urban grid (blue arrows) are the reflective rooftops of shopping malls.

    Tucson enjoys an important position along several major crossroads. Interstate highway I-10, which connects southern California to Florida, appears as a straight line running parallel with the Santa Cruz River northwest from Tucson in the direction of Phoenix. I-10 traverses a well-marked alluvial fan that extends from the Santa Rita Mountains to the southeast (fine drainage pattern lower center of the view) and exits the view at lower right. Highway I-19 is the straight line (lower left) leading south from the city center, between the Santa Cruz River and rectangular spoil heaps of nearby copper mines. I-19 connects Tucson with Nogales on the Mexican border.

    Astronaut photograph ISS009-E-10382 was taken on 7 June 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with a 180 mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. TheInternational Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

    Instrument(s): ISS - Digital Camera
     
  7. Ebro River Delta, Northeastern Spain

    The Ebro River Delta, located along the eastern coast of Spain, is one of the largest wetland areas (320 km2) in the western Mediterranean region. The Ebro delta has grown rapidly—the historical rate of growth of the delta is demonstrated by the city of Amposta. This city was a seaport in the 4th Century, and is now located well inland from the current Ebro river mouth. The rounded form of the delta attests to the balance between sediment deposition by the Ebro River and removal of this material by wave erosion.

    The modern delta is in intensive agricultural use for rice, fruit, and vegetables. White polygonal areas to the north and south of the Ebro River are paddy fields. The Ebro delta also hosts numerous beaches, marshes, and salt pans that provide habitat for over 300 species of birds. A large part of the delta was designated as Parc Natural del Delta de l’Ebre (Ebre Delta National Park) in 1983. A network of canals and irrigation ditches constructed by both agricultural and conservation groups are helping to maintain the ecologic and economic resources of the Ebro Delta.

    This astronaut photograph, taken in partial sunglint, also shows the Ebro’s fresh water lens—the water density boundary between the upper layer of fresh water issuing from the Ebro River mouth and the saltier, denser Mediterranean Sea water. Diversion and impoundment of the Ebro River upstream has led to a decrease in water and sediment delivery to the delta. This decrease has led to increased erosion in some areas to the northeast of El Fangar Bay and along the southwestern shoreline of the delta.

    Astronaut photograph ISS009-E-09985 was acquired June 3, 2004 with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera with an 180 mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

    Instrument(s): ISS - Digital Camera
     
  8. Great Falls of the Potomac

    According to a new study conducted by geologists at the University of Vermont, it was roughly 35,000 years ago that the Potomac River first began carving out the Great Falls of the Potomac. By analyzing a rare isotope formed by cosmic rays colliding with rocks and sediments on Earth’s surface, researchers were able to gauge when and how quickly the Potomac River abandoned its ancient bed and cut through bedrock to form the terraces where people climb and hike today. (This study was published in the July 23 issue of Science. Click to read the press release.)

    Situated about 24 km (15 miles) west of Washington, D.C., Great Falls is a 3-square-kilometer (800-acre) park providing scenic views to hundreds of thousands of visitors every year. The site is particularly popular among hikers, climbers, and kayakers.

    The waters of the Potomac gather speed as they are forced through the narrow Mather Gorge and cascade over a series of several 6-meter (20-foot) falls. In all, the water falls a total of 23 meters (76 feet) in elevation over a distance of less than a mile. According to the National Park Service Web site, the Great Falls of the Potomac are the steepest and most spectacular fall line rapids of any river in the eastern United States.

    Image by Robert Simmon, NASA’s Earth Observatory, based on data copyright Space Imaging

     
  9. Dueling Blooms

    As the seasons and years pass on Earth, different species tend to dominate the landscape at different times. Such is the case in summer in the surface waters of the Barents Sea, north of Scandinavia and Russia. NASA satellites recently captured a transitional moment between one form of microscopic, plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) and another as summer water conditions changed.

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired a natural-color image (above) of phytoplankton blooming in the waters off of Norway and Russia on July 10, 2014. Note the green swirls in the water on the center and left, while milky blue-white swirls color the upper right. Though it is impossible to know the types of phytoplankton without sampling the water directly, previous analyses of satellite images suggest that the green plankton were likely diatoms and the white ones were probably coccolithophores.

    Previous research has suggested that diatoms, a microscopic form of algae with silica shells and plenty of chlorophyll, start to bloom in the well-mixed surface waters of spring and dominate the early summer. As the water warms and becomes more stratified, or layered, coccolithophores bloom more abundantly from late July into the autumn. Coccolithophores show up as milky white-green in satellite imagery due to their calcium carbonate shells.

    The MODIS instrument on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired another image (below) of phytoplankton in the Barents Sea on August 3, 2014. Three weeks after the first shot, coccolithophores appear to have taken over control of the surface waters.

    image

    Both images are somewhat unusual because the Barents Sea is cloud-covered roughly 80 percent of the time in summer. The area in this image is located immediately north of the Scandinavian peninsula, a junction where several ocean current systems—including the Norwegian Atlantic, the Persey, and east Spitsbergen currents—merge and form a front known as the North Cape Current. The intersecting waters, plus stiff winds, promote mixing of waters and of nutrients from the deep.

    1. References

    2. NASA Earth Observatory (2011, August 23) Earth Matters: Yes, that bloom really is that color.
    3. NASA Earth Observatory (2014, April 18) Notes from the Field: An Appreciation for True-Color Satellite Imagery.
    4. NASA Earth Observatory (1999) What is a Coccolithophore?
    5. Signorini, S.R., and C. R. McClain (2009) Environmental factors controlling the Barents Sea spring-summer phytoplankton blooms. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L10604.

    NASA image by Norman Kuring, NASA’s Ocean Color web. Caption by Mike Carlowicz, with assistance from Norman Kuring and Sergio Signorini, NASA GSFC.

    Instrument(s): Aqua - MODIS
     
  10. Panorama of Hispaniola and the Caribbean

    Looking east into a rising sun, the crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this panoramic photo of the island of Hispaniola, with sunglint illuminating the long western peninsula of Haiti. Several thunderheads throw shadows towards the camera at image left. The photo looks a little hazy, likely because of dust in the atmosphere. Dust blows across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa, reaching the western hemisphere every month of the year.

    The plume from a very large wildfire stretches westward across the image. The Constanza Fire started in a national forest on the Dominican Republic and grew to an extent that it threatened surrounding towns and prompted an International Disaster Charter (IDC) activation. Through the charter, a request for imagery was sent to the ISS crew in the hopes that photos might be able to assist firefighters on the ground. Hurricane Berthatracked over the island a week later and helped douse the flames.

    Despite the austere tone of the image, there are touches of color in the blue waters of the Turks and Caicos Islands—which extending from under a large thundercloud (image left)—and in the edge of an ISS solar panel (top right). The solar panels also make a faint reflection on the ISS window (lower right).

    Astronaut photograph ISS040-E-80921 was acquired on July 26, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a 28 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 40 crew. It has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by M. Justin Wilkinson, Jacobs at NASA-JSC.

    Instrument(s): ISS - Digital Camera
     
  11. Hurricanes Iselle and Julio

    In early August 2014, not one but two hurricanes were headed for the Hawaiian Islands. Storms arriving from the east are a relative rarity, and landfalling storms are also pretty infrequent.

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image of Hurricane Iselle over the Pacific Ocean at 10:40 a.m. Hawaiian time (1940 Universal Time) on August 4, 2014. Shortly after the image was acquired, the U.S. Joint Typhoon Warning Center reported that Iselle was a category 4 hurricane with sustained winds at 120 knots (140 miles or 220 kilometers per hour) and centered at 16.10° north latitude, 137.40° west longitude.

    The MODIS image shows a nearly cloud-free eye in the center of a symmetrical storm; there is solid ring of clouds around the center rather than intermittent, spiral bands. Iselle was at its peak intensity at the time and it was likely an annular hurricane. Atmospheric researchers also detected signs of mesovortices near the eyewall.The smaller, tighter rotating structures within the larger storm are often associated with tornadoes on land.

    Forecasters from the Central Pacific Hurricane Center predicted on August 6 that Iselle would make landfall on the island of Hawaii as a strong tropical storm or a category 1 hurricane late on August 7. Wind damage and heavy surf are likely, but heavy rainfall, flash floods, and landslides were the greatest concern as Iselle approached.

    On August 5, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on Suomi-NPP captured natural-color images of both Iselle and Hurricane Julio en route to Hawaii. The image below is a composite of three satellite passes over the tropical Pacific Ocean in the early afternoon. Note that Iselle’s eyewall had grown less distinct; the storm had descreased to category 2 intensity. The bright shading toward the center-left of the image is sunglint, the reflection of sunlight off the water and directly back at the satellite sensor.

    On the same day, Terra MODIS also imaged Iselle and Julio, as well as Hurricane Genevieve (southwest of Hawaii);click here to view that mosaic. The black shapes across the MODIS image are gaps in the satellite’s view. Terra flies in a lower orbit than Suomi-NPP, so its images are narrower and have gaps near the equator, but they can be more detailed.

    You can also see a video below of the three storms in motion from August 2–4, as observed by the GOES-West weather satellite.

    As of midday on August 6, Hurricane Julio was a category 1 storm, but it is expected to weaken to tropical storm force in the coming days. Forecasts suggest that the eye will pass north of the Hawaiian Islands on August 10, but it is possible that there will be some effects on land.

    1. References and Related Reading

    2. Dr. Jeff Masters WunderBlog, via Weather Underground (2014, August 6) Rare Twin Hurricanes Headed Towards Hawaii. Accessed August 6, 2014.
    3. Dr. Jeff Masters WunderBlog, via Weather Underground (2014, August 4) Hurricane Iselle Headed Towards Hawaii.Accessed August 6, 2014.
    4. NASA Earth Observatory (2013, March 5) In a Warming World, Storms May Be Fewer but Stronger.
    5. NOAA Central Pacific Hurricane Center (2014, August 6) Hurricane Iselle. Accessed August 6, 2014.
    6. NOAA National Hurricane Center (2014, August 6) Hurricane Julio. Accessed August 6, 2014.
    7. Unisys Weather (2014) Iselle Tracking Information. Accessed August 6, 2014.
    8. The Vane, via Gawker (2014, August 6) This Week’s Buzzword: ‘Annular Hurricane.’ Accessed August 6, 2014.

    NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response. Caption by Mike Carlowicz.

    Instrument(s): Terra - MODISSuomi NPP - VIIRS
     
  12. Wildfire in Sweden

    Cool and relatively moist, Swedish summers aren’t known for promoting wildfire. Fires occur in most years, but not on the scale or intensity of the blaze that raged through boreal forests in August 2014.

    It’s not clear how it got started, but fast-growing fire has consumed Västmanland since July 31. In a week, the blaze grew to become the largest Sweden has seen in four decades. As of August 8, it had charred more than 150 square kilometers (60 square miles), killed one person, and forced thousands to evacuate their homes.

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this natural-color image of the fire on August 4, 2014. Multiple smoke plumes rise from the perimeter of the fire and blow northwest in the wind. Burned forest appears brown; unaffected forests are dark green; farmland is light green; and fallow fields are tan.

    Hot and dry weather exacerbated the fire, stressing vegetation and priming it to burn. With a high-pressure system parked over Scandinavia, oppressive heat emerged across Sweden in July and August, bringing record or near-record temperatures to many towns and cities. In Sala, a city close to the fire, temperatures soared to 34.7°C (94.5°F) on August 5. Average temperatures are about 70°F (21°C) in early August.

    Wildfires aren’t common or widespread in Sweden. According to a report published by the International Forest Fire News, only a few hundred hectares (100 hectares is equivalent to 1 square kilometer) generally burn during the nation’s wet summers, and a few thousand hectares burn during dry summers. That’s less than 0.02 percent of Sweden’s overall forest cover.

    NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Adam Voiland.

    Instrument(s): Landsat 8 - OLI
     
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  15. canadian-space-agency:

    ESA Astronaut Alexander Gerst aboard the ISS: “The Great Salt Lake in Utah. Had a great road trip up there last year!”

    Credit: Alexander Gerst/ESA

    (Source: twitter.com)